Dictionary Georgakas 

Greek-English Dictionary Georgakas 

 

General Abbreviations


Contents

A. Graphic Signs

  1. Superscript numeral follows homonymous words as exponent, e.g. ακαμάτης (adjective), ακαμάτης2 (noun).
  2. [Brackets] include the pronunciation of the basic entry word form.
    • Vertical lines | separate quotations. Double vertical lines || separate major groupings of examples or special expressions.
    • Vertical line ı (below the text line) indicates the separation of poetic lines (verses), while double lines װ indicate the separation of stanzas.
  3. Numbers or letters encircled (A), (B), (1), (2), (a), (b), (α), (β) etc. indicate bold face characters used for sections of articles and of meanings and submeanings.
  4. The sign ~ represents the entryword in its basic form used as the entry (especially in adverbs) or the just preceding form in the text of the article.
    • The double (~~) or even triple (~~~) means that as many words are repeated as in the entryword.
  5. Dash - before endings or terminations, e.g. -ος, -η, -ότερος, etc.
    • Dashes in examples may represent the practice of the author concerning change of speaker in dialogue and occasionally in place of parentheses.
  6. Two points .. represent omission of part of the text of whatever length in long quotations.
  7. The arrows → and ← are used in the etymological part to indicate changed to (→) and derived from (←).
  8. & is used as abbreviation of and in the opening part on the forms of the entry and in the etymological part.
  9. $ means dollar(s); £ pound(s); dr(s) drachma(s).
  10.  
    • a. The initial letter of the first word in quotations is not capitalized.
    • b. No capitalizing of adjectives derived from place names (areas, countries, cities). These are usually not capitalized in Modern Greek, e.g. αθηναϊκός, ανατολίτικος, βαλκανικός, κρητικός, κυκλαδίτικος, κυπριακός, μακεδονικός, μοραΐτικος, πελοποννησιακός, ρουμελιώτικος, etc., whereas the place names themselves and patrial names are capitalized, e.g. Aνατολή & Aνατολίτης, Aθήνα & Aθηναίος, Bαλκάνια, Kρήτη, etc.
  11. Numbers in translations are mostly written in symbols (100, 235, etc.) instead of in words numbers with verb forms, e.g. 2sg = second person singular.
  12. The sign § represents paragraph and the double §§ represents paragraphs.

B. Terms

 
abbr = abbreviation, abbreviated
abs = absolutely (used)
acc = accusative
account. = accounting
act. = active voice, as active
AD = A.D., anno Domini, of our era
adj = adjective, adjectival
adjs = adjectives
adv = adverb, adverbial(ly)
affirm. = affirmative
AG = Ancient Greek
agric = agriculture, farming
Alb = Albanian
Am = American (English)
anal. = analogy, analogical(ly)
anat = anatomy
anc = ancient
anchist = ancient history
andronym= andronymic (designating the wife of so-and-so)
Anglican Ch = Anglican Church
ant = antonym(s)
Anth. = Anthology
anthrop = anthropology
antimetath = antimetathesis
antiphr = antiphrasis, antiphrastic(ally)
anyth = anything
aor = aorist (tense)
appos = apposition, -tive(ly)
Arab = Arabic
Aram = Aramaic
arche. = archeology
archit = architecture
arithm = arithmetic
Arom = Aromunian
art. = article
artill. = artillery
assim = assimilation; assimilatory; assimilated
astr = astronomy
athl = athletics
Attic inscr. = Attic inscriptions
augmentat. = augmentative
aviat = aviation
 
backform. = backformation
BC = B.C., before Christ
bes = besides
betw = between
Bibl = Biblical
bindery = book bindery
biol = biology
Br = British (English)
bot = botany, botanic
build. = building (industry)
Bulg = Bulgarian
bureaucr = bureaucratese
ByzG = Byzantine Greek
 
C = comparative (degree of adjective & adverb)
c. = century
ca = circa
cap = capital
Cappad = Cappadocian
car = car, automobile
cards = cards, card games, playing of card games
Cath = Catholic
CathCh = Catholic Church
cf = confer, compare
chem = chemistry
chess = chess (game)
ChristChurch = Christian Church
Christ rel = Christian religion
classmyth = classical mythology
cloth. = clothing
CModG = Common Modern Greek
collect. = collective (e.g. collect. suffix, collect. noun), collectively
colloq = colloquial
comm = common
complem = complementary (e.g. clause)
computertechnol. = computer technology
conj = conjunction
cons = consonant
cook. = cooking, cookery
cosmetol = cosmetology
cpd = compound(ed)
cpds = compounds
Cret = Cretan
Cypr = Cyprian
 
D = demotic
dat. = dativ (case)
dent. = dentistry, dental (term)
depon. = deponent
der = derived; derivative
derivs = derivatives
dermatol = dermatology
derog = derogatory, -rily
deverb = deverbative
dial = dialectal(ly); dialect
dials = dialects
dimin = diminutive
diplom = diplomacy; diplomatic
dir obj = direct object
dissim = dissimilation; dissimilatory
 
E = East
eccl= ecclesiastical
econ = economy
ed.= edition
educ = education
e.g. = exempli gratia, for instance
electr = electric, -al; electricity
electron. comm = electronic communication
emphat = emphatic(ally)
endear. = endearing(ly)
Eng = English
engineer. = engineering
engrav. = engraving
entom = entomology
ep = eparchia (administrative subdivision)
equiv = equivalent
esp = especially
etc = et cetera
euphem = euphemistic(ally)
Europ. = Europe
exch = exchange
excl = exclamation
 
f = feminine (gender)
fig = figurative(ly)
fish. = fishing
FN = family name
folket =folketymology, -ical
folkl = folklanguage
folks. = folksong
folkt = folktale
form. = formation
fr = from
Fr = French
freq = frequent(ly)
 
garden = gardening
gen = genitive (case)
geogr = geography; geographic
geol = geology
geophys = geophysics
Germ = German
glassind = glass industry
gloss = gloss, glossary, glossaria
GN = geographic name
gnom = gnomic
govt = government
Gr = Greek
gramm = grammar, grammatical
GrOrthodCh = Greek Orthodox Church
gym = gymnastics, games
 
haplol =haplology
Hebr = Hebrew
her = heraldic
hist = history, -ically; historical term
home econ = home economics
hypostascpd = hypostasized compound
 
ib = ibidem
ichth = ichthyology
id. or idem = idem, same author
idiom = idiom, idiomatic(ally)
idiom phr = idiomatic phrase
IE = Indo-European
i.e. = id est, that is
imper = imperative (mood)
impers = impersonal
impfor ipf = imperfect (tense)
indecl = indeclinable
indic = indicative
inf = infinitive
infreq = infrequent(ly)
inhab = inhabitant
init = initial
inscr = inscription
interj = interjection
intern. comb. eng. = internal combusion engine
interr. = interrogative
intr = intransitive (verb)
Ion = Ionic
IonIsl = Ionian Islands
iron. = ironically
ISV = International Scientific Vocabulary
It = Italian
 
journ = journalism
 
K = Koine (Greek)
κ. = κάποιον (acc sg m)
kath = Katharevousa
κλ = και λοιπά, etc.
 
L = Learned (from Ancient Greek, Koine, Byzantine Greek, Ecclesiastical etc. or Kath)
l. = line (or verse)
ll. = lines (or verses)
lang = language
Lat = Latin
law = legal (& jurisprudence term)
Lesb. = Lesbian
lex. = lexicon
lexicogr = lexicography, lexicographical term
ling = linguistics
lit = literature; literary (term)
lit& poet = literary and poetic
liter = literal(ly)
liter& fig = literally and figuratively
Lith. = Lithuanian
liturg = liturgy, liturgical
LK = Late Koine
LLat = Late Latin
LM = Late Medieval
LMG = Late Medieval Greek
log = logic
 
m = masculine (gender)
Macedo-Roum. = Macedo-Roumanian
math = mathematics
me = member (of cpds)
med = medicine, medical (term)
mediev = medieval
mediop = mediopassive
metall = metalwork, metallurgy
meteorol = meteorology
meton = metonymy
metr = metric
mf = masculine & feminine
MFr = Middle French
MG = Middle or Medieval Greek, Byzantine Greek
mi = middle voice
microbiol = microbiology
milit = military
min = mining
miner = mineralogy
MLat = Medieval Latin
mod = modern
ModCypr = Modern Cyprian
ModG = Modern Greek
mus = music, musical (term)
myth. = mythology
 
N = North
n = neuter (gender)
naut = nautical
navy = navy (term)
NE = Northeast
near-ant= near antonym, quasi-antonym
near-syn= near synonym, quasi-synonym
neg= negative, negation
neol= neologism
neut= neutral
NIt = North Italian
NLat = Neo Latin
no. = north(ern)
no. dial = northern dialect(al)
no. dials = northern dialects
nom= nominative (case)
npl = nominative plural
num= numeral
 
O = Old
o.s. = oneself
OFr = Old French
OIt = Old Italian
obsol = obsolete
obsolesc = obsolescent
ocean. = oceanography
o/p. = onomatopoeia, -poetic
ophthalmol= ophthalmology
origin. = original(ly)
orn= ornithology
OSl = Old Slavic
 
paint. = painting
paleogr= paleography
pap = papyrus, papyri
paretym= paretymological
pass= passive
pathol= pathology
PatrG = Patristic Greek
Peloponn.= Peloponnesus
perh= perhaps
pers-n= personal name
pf= perfect (tense)
pharm= pharmacology
philol= philology
philos = philosophy
photogr = photography
phr = phrase (s)
phys = physics
physiol= physiology
pl= plural (number), pl used also for n pl and acc pl
pl-n= place name
poem= poem(s): the following citation(s) is (are) from poetry
poet= poetic
polit= politics
poss= possessive
postmed= postmedieval
PostmedG = Postmedieval Greek
ppf= perfect passive (tense)
ppp = perfect passive participle
pr or pres = present (tense)
preced= preceding
predic= predicate, predicative
pref= prefix
prehist= prehistory, prehistorical
prep= preposition, prepositional
prep phr = prepositional phrase
priv. or privat. = privative, -ivum
prob= probably
pron= pronoun, pronominal
pronunc= pronunciation
proth= prothetic (vowel)
prov = proverb
prov phr = proverbial phrase
prp = present participle
prpp = present passive participle
ps- = pseudo-
psych = psychology
pt = participle
Ptolem. papyri = Ptolemaic papyri
 
quote = quote, quotation
quotes = quotes, quotations
q.v. = quod vide, which see
 
railw= railway, railroading
re= with regard to, concerning
redupl = reduplication
region. = regional(ly), i.e. one or more regions
relig= religion
rhet= rhetoric
Rom.= Romanic
Rum = Rumanian
Russ = Russian
 
S = South (combined, e.g. SAmerica, SAfrica)
s. = sub; see
S or superl = superlative (degree)
sc= scilicet, namely
scit. = scientific term
Sem= Semitic
Serb = Serbian
Serbo-Cr = Serbo-Croatian
sg= singular
short. = shortened
Skt. = Sanskrit
Sl= Slavic
s.o. = someone
sp. also = spelled also
Span = Spanish
SpanArab = Spanish Arabic
spec= special
specif= specifically
specphr = special phrase(s)
spur= spurious
ss= substandard
statist= statistics
sth= something
stockexch = stock exchange
subd. =subdialect (parler), subdialectal
subj= subjunctive (mood)
subst = substantive
substantiv = substantivized
substit = substitution
suff = suffix
surg = surgery
s.v. = sub voce
s.vv. = sub vocibus
syll. = syllable
syn = synonym(s)
synecd = synecdoche, by synecdoche
synt = syntax
 
technt. = technical term
teleph= telephone
termin= termination
theat= theater
theol= theology
topogr= topography
topon= toponym
trans = transitive (verb)
transl= translation
ts= the same (meaning), idem
Turk = Turkish
tv= television
typogr= typography
 
US = United States of America
usu= usual(ly)
 
var= variant
Ven = Venetian
verbaladj = verbal adjective
vet= veterinary
voc= vocative
 
W = West (e.g. WAfrica)
w. = with
weav= weaving
widespread(e.g. widespread region)
wireless= wireless, radio
wr= written
 
zoo= zoology, zoological (term)
Last Modified: 12 Nov 2009, 10:48